As an ORM framework, there are many new ideas and solutions in DoytoQuery. The core idea of DoytoQuery is to map the query object to WHERE clause in a SQL statement for dynamic query, and there are four ways to map the fields in DoytoQuery.

Let's see how to write a query object for the following UserEntity:

public class UserEntity extends AbstractPersistable<Integer> {
    private String username;
    private String email;
    private String mobile;
    private String password;
    private String nickname;
    private Boolean valid;

The four fields mapping ways

1. Suffix mapping

We define a class UserQuery first, and for common conditions like id = ?, username = ? and valid = ?, we just define the fields in UserQuery class as follows.

public class UserQuery extends PageQuery {
    private Integer id;
    private String username;
    private Boolean valid;

For other comparison operators e.g. [NOT] LIKE, >, <, !=, >=, <=, IS [NOT] NULL, [NOT] IN, we can add a suffix after the column name to specify the comparator. For examples, map idIn to id IN (?,?,?), idGt to id > ?, usernameLike to username LIKE ?, and also with the right type as following.

public class UserQuery extends PageQuery {
    private Integer id;
    private String username;
    private Boolean valid;
    private List<Integer> idIn;
    private Integer idGt;
    private String usernameLike;

Only non-null fields will be mapped and mutliple condiitions will be connected by AND.

UserQuery userQuery = UserQuery.builder().usernameLike("test").valid(true).build();

The above userQuery object will be mapped to the following SQL with corresponding parameters.

SELECT id, username, email, mobile, password, nickname, valid FROM user WHERE username LIKE ? and valid = ?
-- With parameters: ["%test%", true] 

Check Appendix I for all supported suffixes.

2. OR Mapping

We also need to connect the conditions by OR in some scenarios and there are two ways in DoytoQuery.

2.1 Map OR clause by field name containing Or

Connect multi column names with Or like usernameOrEmailOrMobile, and map it to username = ? OR email = ? OR mobile = ?.

2.2 Map OR clause for objects marked by Or interface

public interface Or {

public class AccountOr implements Or {
    private String username;
    private String email;
    private String mobile;

public class UserQuery {
    private AccountOr account;

Traverse the fields in AccountOr to get [username, email, mobile] and then connect them with OR and get username = ? OR email = ? OR mobile = ?.

3. Nested Query Mapping

The nested query is another frequently used feature of SQL. In a common definititon of a menu table to manage the menu tree, we usually define a foreign key parentId to refer to the id of the parent menu entity.

To query the menus which have children menus, we execute the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM menu WHERE id IN (SELECT parentId FROM menu)

To query the children menus of the specified menu, we execute the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM menu WHERE parentId IN (SELECT id FROM menu)

And query the menus onwed by certain users:

  SELECT menu_id FROM a_perm_and_menu WHERE perm_id IN (
    SELECT perm_id FROM a_role_and_perm WHERE role_id IN (
      SELECT role_id FROM a_user_and_role WHERE user_id IN (
        SELECT id FROM t_user WHERE id = ?

These are the typical one-to-many/many-to-one/many-to-many relationships in ERM. DoytoQuery defines a new annotation @DomainPath to map the nested query.

public @interface DomainPath {
    // To describe how to route from the host domain to the target domain.
    String[] value();
    String localField() default "id";
    String foreignField() default "id";

Here are the full examples about the usages of @DomainPath.

public class MenuQuery extends PageQuery {
    // many-to-one: query children menus by their parents' conditions
    @DomainPath(localField = "parentId", foreignField = "id", value = "menu")
    MenuQuery parent;      // parentId   IN (SELECT      id   FROM     menu  WHERE ... )
    // one-to-many: query parent menus by their children's conditions
    @DomainPath(localField = "id", foreignField = "parentId", value = "menu")
    MenuQuery children;    // id   IN (SELECT      parentId   FROM     menu  WHERE ... )
    // Many-to-many: query menus owned by the users meeting the query conditions
    @DomainPath({"menu", "~", "perm",  "~", "role", "~", "user"})
    UserQuery user;

4. Mapping explicitly

The last way to map the field to the condition when no ways matching above is to use the annotation @QueryField, it will map the clause defined by the annotation directly. It is the first mapping way when DoytoQuery is created, but the last one to use now. Here is an example.

public class MenuQuery extends PageQuery {
    @QueryField(and = "id = (SELECT parent_id FROM menu WHERE id = ?)")
    private Integer childId;

This way is deprecated for nested query after the @DomainPath is created.


In this article, we explored four ways of mapping fields of a query object to the SQL conditions with DoytoQuery. You don't need write any SQL with the first three ways and they can cover most of the single-table query scenarios when working with relational databases.

Appendix I: Supported Mapping Suffix

Suffix Operator PlaceHolder Type Restriction Value Conversion
(No matching
= - -
Not != ?
NotLike NOT LIKE ? String %value%
Like LIKE ? String %value%
Start LIKE ? String %value
End LIKE ? String value%

(?[, ?]) for nonempty set;
Bypass for emply set.


(?[, ?]) for nonempty set;
(null) for emply set.

NotNull IS NOT NULL - boolean
Null IS NULL - boolean
Gt > ?
Ge >= ?
Lt < ?
Le <= ?
Eq = ?